Monday, August 24, 2020

Drama- Glengarry Glen Ross a play by David Mamet Essay

Show Glengarry Glen Ross a play by David Mamet - Essay Example The show contains numerous figures of speech that additionally accentuate the ethical lessons that the writer discusses in the book. In the dramatization, the characters use delays and stammers that make the language dynamic (Mamet 73). The character of the characters in the show regularly changes and it the two repels and entertains the crowd. The characters in the show additionally have a comic impact on account of their misrepresented characters. I accept that the dramatization is a piece that helps individuals on the need to remember not losing their humankind and profound quality. This is particularly those brought about by the present hardship of the financial world. The show unmistakably delineates the life of individuals battling to turn out to be monetarily steady. The content of the creator utilizes a few styles that make it incredibly hard to execute in a play. These styles resemble the utilization of phrases and stammers (Mamet 73). In any case, the on-screen characters that assume the jobs ought to have the option to execute the content with all the figures of speech and the melodic language

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Microeconomics (EC2021C) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Microeconomics (EC2021C) - Essay Example This paper centers around the expenses of an ascent in the lowest pay permitted by law, the advantages of an ascent in the lowest pay permitted by law lastly the impact of an ascent in the lowest pay permitted by law when the work showcase is monopsonistic. The paper talks about the impact of this ascent on the flexibly and request bend on work, impact on cost, impact on the way of life and how this expansion will prompt joblessness and expanded re-appropriating in other lower the lowest pay permitted by law nations. We initially break down the impact of an expansion in the lowest pay permitted by law rates on the flexibly and the interest for work in a serious market, in a serious market request increments when wages decay and request decreases when compensation rates increment. Flexibly of work increments when the compensation rates rise, and that gracefully of work decay when pay rates are diminished, hence an expansion in the lowest pay permitted by law rates will expand flexibly and decrease request. From the above graph an expansion in the lowest pay permitted by law will prompt an expansion in the gracefully of work, the reason behind this expansion is on the grounds that as the lowest pay permitted by law increment then more specialists will be willing and furthermore urged to work more work hours and along these lines flexibly of work will increment. Taking into account that work is factor of creation ... t work is factor of creation and that organizations will consider work as a creation cost at that point in the event that the expense of work builds, at that point firms will request less of work, this can likewise be clarified by the way that organizations will decide the ideal creation point utilizing the spending line and the isoquants, along these lines an expansion in cost of work will prompt replacement of work for capital and accordingly less work will be requested, the chart underneath exhibits the impact of this increment on work request: From the above chart it is apparent that an expansion in the lowest pay permitted by law will prompt a decrease in the interest for work, along these lines this will result into less work in an economy. Advantages of expanded the lowest pay permitted by law: Way of life: An expansion in the lowest pay permitted by law will result into an increment in expectations for everyday comforts, laborers will presently be paid higher pay rates and hence there will be an ascent in expectations for everyday comforts, this will be acknowledged in light of the fact that laborers will currently have a bigger discretionary cashflow and along these lines can bear the cost of additional in the economy. Inspiration of laborers: Laborers in the economy will be progressively inspired, as indicated by different investigations expanded wages result into expanded inspiration and in this manner expanded efficiency of work, when profitability of work builds then the firm will profit on the grounds that the firm turns out to be increasingly gainful. Monetary development will likewise be acknowledged because of expanded efficiency of workers in the economy and hence higher development. Expanded utilization: At the point when the lowest pay permitted by law is expanded customers will encounter an ascent in their salary, an ascent in the pay level likewise connotes an ascent in the shopper discretionary cashflow, thusly as extra cash builds there will be an ascent in the utilization levels in an economy. This will profit the economy

Saturday, July 25, 2020

Journal Writing to Ease Anxiety

Journal Writing to Ease Anxiety Panic Disorder Coping Print Journal Writing as a Tool for Coping With Panic and Anxiety By Katharina Star, PhD facebook linkedin Katharina Star, PhD, is an expert on anxiety and panic disorder. Dr. Star is a professional counselor, and she is trained in creative art therapies and mindfulness. Learn about our editorial policy Katharina Star, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on February 04, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on February 10, 2020 Witthaya Prasongsin / Getty Images More in Panic Disorder Coping Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Related Conditions Journal writing is an easy and effective coping technique that can help you manage life with panic disorder. Through journaling, you can track your progress, explore your emotions, and manage your feelings of stress. Used with other treatment options for panic disorder, journal writing can be a self-help exercise that assists you on your way towards recovery. What Is Journal Writing? Journal writing, or simply journaling, is the act of writing down your thoughts, feelings, and perceptions regarding your life events. The term journal comes from a French word that means to journey or travel. Journal writing is a written record of your inner experiences of the journey of your life. Benefits of Journal Writing Research studies have revealed the numerous benefits of journaling. One of the most studied aspects of journal writing pertains to its healing effects. It has been determined that those who keep a journal are more likely to be connected to their emotions and problem-solving skills. Keeping a journal has also been found to help a person relieve stress, let go of negativity, refocus on gratitude, and work through difficult emotions and circumstances. Used as a coping technique, journal writing can be a helpful way to explore your fears, manage your stress, and enhance your personal well-being. Much like talking to a trusted friend or therapist, your journal can be a way for you to openly communicate your worries, hopes, dreams, and disappointments. Journal writing gives you the freedom to express your deep inner thoughts and emotions, making it a great tool for personal growth and development. For people with anxiety disorders, journaling can be a way to help clear and calm the mind. Through writing, a person can release pent-up feelings, escape from everyday stressors, and let go of negative thoughts. Those with panic disorder can use a journal to explore their experiences with their condition, writing about their struggles and successes in dealing with their symptoms. Reviewing past journal entries can also bring self-awareness to your panic and anxiety triggers. Aside from self-expression and exploration, journal writing can also be an effective way to track your progress. A journal can be used to record your experience with relaxation techniques, panic attacks, and other anxiety symptoms. For example, you may be practicing certain coping skills, such as progressive muscle relaxation, visualization, or desensitization. You can use your journal as a means to record how your technique went that day, writing down how you felt before and after you tried the technique, noting what you like or didn’t like. Tips for Getting Started With Journaling To get started all you need 5-10 minutes of time set aside and some type of journal. You can purchase a traditional journal or diary to write in, make your own, use your computer, or simply use a pen and paper. You may also want to consider getting creative in your journal writing and using other forms of self-expression. For example, you can incorporate drawing, poetry, quotes, photographs, painting, and other forms of artistic media into your journaling. You might purchase a journal at the store or perhaps you’ll create your own, using paper, magazine pictures, and your writing. Maybe you will take pictures and secure them into a notebook to express your connection with the world around you. The options are endless and there are no rules to journal writing. Within the pages of your journal, allow yourself the freedom of complete self-expression. Try not to censor yourself. Write down everything that comes to mind. Don’t worry about grammar and spelling.Journal writing is a creative expression. Give yourself permission to openly and honestly express yourself. If you are holding back out of fear that someone may find your journal, then try to keep it in a secure place.Remember that there are no rules in journal writing. You can write about your day, what you are grateful for, your hopes for the future, or anything else that appeals to you.Many people chose to keep a journal that is based around a theme. For example, some people chose to keep a gratitude journal, a diary of daily events, or a panic and anxiety tracker.Attempt to put aside at least 5 to 10 minutes a day for journaling. Figure out what time of day is best for you. Consider writing in the morning to get all your worries, frustrations, and hopes for the day out of your system. Write in the evening to reflect on your day.Try not to view journal writing as a task. Rather, consider it an opportunity to learn about yourself, cope with your condition, and grow as an individual. The 7 Best Online Anxiety Support Groups

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Federalist Papers By John Jay - 2011 Words

The Federalist Papers, written in New York by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, during the years of 1787 and 1788, were a collection of eighty-five essays that were written to augment and garner support and to defend those concepts set forth in The Constitution of the United States of America (hereafter â€Å"The Constitution†), which had not yet been ratified. The Federalist Papers not only championed The Constitution, but they also explained how the new government would operate in the United States as further detailed below. It was crucial to the success of the new country that The Constitution be ratified; and Jay, Hamilton and Madison were prepared to do anything they could to see to the documents, as well as the United States, success. In September of 1787, The Constitution was proposed to The Confederation Congress. The Confederation Congress was a government that was made up of appointed delegates from the then, thirteen states. Since it was the supreme g overning body, it was the party that was able to make the decision about the fate of The Constitution. The decision made was to turn the decision over to the states for ratification. Therefore, Jay, Hamilton and Madison wrote the Federalist Papers to ensure that there was going to be adequate support to have the states ratify The Constitution. Additionally, they were written to counter act the negative comments being made by those persons opposed to The Constitution, which includedShow MoreRelatedThe Federalist Papers By John Jay1184 Words   |  5 PagesThe Federalist Papers Essay The Federalist Papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were wrote to convince the people of the states that the newly written constitution would be a vastly better system of government than the articles of confederation, and that the states should ratify it. The purpose of Federalist Paper No. 51 is to inform the reader of safeties created by the constitutional convention to maintain separate branches of government, and to protect theRead MoreThe Federalist Papers By John Jay995 Words   |  4 PagesThe Federalist Papers â€Å"This country and this people seem to have been made for each other, and it appears as if it was the design of Providence that an inheritance so proper and convenient for a ban of brethren, united to each other by the strongest of ties, should never be split into a number of unsocial, jealous, and alien sovereignties.† (Jay 1787) This was written by John Jay in one of a collection of 85 essays written by John Jay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton known as The FederalistRead MoreThe Federalist Papers : Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, And John Jay1094 Words   |  5 Pages†¢ The authors of The Federalist Papers are Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. The book is edited by Clinton Rossiter, and has introduction and notes by Charles R. Kesler. Alexander Hamilton was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, along with being the first secretary of the treasure of the United States. Hamilton was a man of many things: a Government official, author, military leader, economist, lawyer, and political scientist in his short lifetime. As ambitious a man HamiltonRead MoreThe Federalist Paper, By Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, And John Jay1297 Words   |  6 PagesThe Federalist Papers are a series of eighty-five essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, which argued the reasons why the Articles of Confederation should be strengthened. These articles support the new constitution as well as seek ratification from the states. On November 7, 1787 John Jay published The Fourth Federalist Paper. In The Fourth Federalist Paper John Jay explains that the U.S should be unified under a central government rather than function as multiple independentRead MoreThe Federalist Papers By James Madison, Alexander Ham ilton, And John Jay1974 Words   |  8 PagesThe Federalist Papers written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay are one of the greatest collections of literature from the time period of 1787 to 1788 when the Constitution was being ratified by the states. This collection of eighty-five essays was written for the states, to help them better understand and grasp a concept of why they should vote for the ratification of The Constitution. Why did the Madison, Hamilton, and Jay write The Federalist Papers and what is there underlyingRead MoreThe Federalist Papers, By Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, And John Jay1715 Words   |  7 PagesThe Federalist Papers, written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, can be argued to be one of the most quintessential contributions to United States history. The series of eighty-five essays was published in 1788 to increase support for the ratification of the Constitution. The Federalist Papers were written to suppress A mericans’ apprehensions regarding the creation of a stronger national government. Unlike the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution was fixated on how the newRead MoreThe Federalist Papers, By Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, And John Jay1357 Words   |  6 Pages The Federalist Papers were a series of eighty-five articles in 1787-88 written mostly in part to persuade the colonies to ratify the United States Constitution. The papers were written anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym â€Å"Publius† and addressed major concerns that the colonists expressed about the Constitution. One of their major concerns was the proposed bicameral legislature’s ability to cooperate. The Constitution established a two-part CongressRead MoreThe Federalist Papers By Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, And John Jay1176 Words   |  5 PagesBut the Federalists would not easily forfeit. They argued that the Constitution didnâ€℠¢t require a Bill of Rights. The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, summed up the thoughts of many Federalists. In Federalist Paper No. 84 Publius, a pseudonym under which they wrote, addressed Antifederalist worries, â€Å"Bills of rights†¦ are not only unnecessary in the proposed Constitution, but would even be dangerous.† Publius argued that because the Constitution was â€Å"foundedRead MoreThe Federalist Papers By James Madison, Alexander Hamilton And John Jay1513 Words   |  7 PagesThe Federalist papers are a group of eighty-five essays written collectively by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. The papers were written as an attempt to advocate and further the progress of the ratification of the United States Constitution. Federalist Number Ten is the first essay of the series written by James Madison. In this essay, Madison is attempting to convey the dangers of factions or political divisions within a go verning body. He believes that any well thought out unionRead MoreTheu.s. Constitution And The Constitution1612 Words   |  7 Pagestheir decisions who were pro-constitution (federalists), but nevertheless, there were people, anti-federalists, who did not support the constitution. Although they did not want the Articles of Confederation in place, neither did they want to ratify the constitution because they opposed of having a strong central government. The ratification of the constitution changed the face of the United States and set forth a model for future documents to come. Federalists fought very hard against their opposing

Friday, May 8, 2020

Apartheid in South Africa - 1154 Words

Nelson Mandela helped bring an end to Apartheid in South Africa because he was a believer in basic human rights, leading both peaceful and violent protests against the white South African Government. His beliefs landed him in prison for twenty-seven years, almost three decades. In doing so, he became the face of the apartheid movement both in his country and around the world. When released from prison in 1990, he continued to honor his commitment to fight for justice and equality for all people in South Africa. In 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected to become the first black president of South Africa and formed a government that represented the people of South Africa. What was Apartheid? Apartheid was when people were segregated into†¦show more content†¦As a result the government passed the Suppression of Communism Act in which any Opposition to the government was treated as Communism. Nelson Mandela helped lead the ANC’s 1952 Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws, travelling across the country to organize protests against policies that discriminated against black people. This lead to the Freedom Charter, a list of basic demands that existed in every true democracy around the world. At this time, Mandela encouraged the ANC to form an alliance with other groups who were interested in changing South Africa. As a result Nelson Mandela went on trial for treason but was found innocent in 1961. Nelson Mandela believed in peaceful resistance but gradually began to realize that passive resistance was not winning the fight. Their peaceful demonstrations were met with unforgiveable violence. At Sharpeville in1960, protestors showed up at the Sharpeville police station without their passbooks, a riot broke out and police killed sixty-nine people. In Soweto (June 1976), six hundred unarmed high school students protesting for an improved education were killed. The Government banned the ANC and PAC and Mandela was forced to go underground to avoid detection. Plans were made to bomb places of significance to apartheid, but these were always planned to avoid anyone being hurt or killed. Nelson Mandela was tried for treason and at one stage was foundShow MoreRelatedThe Apartheid Of South Africa1174 Words   |  5 PagesSome periods in human history are simply shameful. The period of apartheid policy in South Africa was one of these times. Apartheid featured a rebirth of racist legi slature in South Africa from the 1950s to the 1990s. Essentially, these laws treated people who were not white as completely separate from society; the term apartheid literally means â€Å"apartness.† The national legislature in South Africa wanted to suppress blacks and ensure a white supremacy in the government. Basically, politicalRead MoreSouth Africa Apartheid And Oppression1695 Words   |  7 Pages South Africa Apartheid (oppression) Oppression is at the root of many of the most serious, enduring conflicts in the world today. Racial and religious conflicts; conflicts between dictatorial governments and their citizens; the battle between the sexes; conflicts between management and labor; and conflicts between heterosexuals and homosexuals all stem, in whole or in part, to oppression. It’s similar to an article in south africa that people have with racial segregationRead MoreApartheid and The Future of South Africa in Cry, The Beloved Country1044 Words   |  5 Pagesall characters from Alan Paton’s book, Cry, The Beloved Country, are used to share Paton’s points of view on the future of South Africa and the apartheid. Paton uses these characters to represent specific views; Arthur expresses clearly that the apartheid isn’t the right way to progress as a country, Napoleon exemplifies how Paton thinks people should take the anti-apartheid effort, and Msimangu explicitly expresses Patonâ €™s ideas of an ideal leader. Arthur Jarvis was the son of James Jarvis, anRead MoreEssay on South Africa Under Apartheid: A Totalitarian State1356 Words   |  6 PagesDuring the Apartheid Era, there emerged from South Africa cases of gross human rights abuse, racism, police brutality and general mistreatment of the non-white population. Excluding the fact that South Africa was never ruled by a dictator, it can be argued that some of these features were totalitarian and that South Africa was, to a certain extent, a totalitarian state under Apartheid. This discussion will analyse the totalitarian features that were apparent during Apartheid, and will be structuredRead MoreTo What Extent Did The Collapse Of Apartheid South Africa ( 1991 ) Really Bring About Change For The Bantu Population1458 Words   |  6 PagesTo what extent did the collapse of Apartheid in South Africa (1991) really bring about change for the Bantu population? The collapse of Apartheid in South Africa (1991) brought only a small amount of change for the Bantu population. South still faces racism in society, due to the continual domination by the â€Å"white† population with race interaction limited to the false â€Å"rainbow† television campaigns and promotional Africa strategies. At the close of Apartheid, a number of false statements were usedRead MoreHow and why did the apartheid system come into existence in South Africa and how was its existence maintained and enforced for so long?1593 Words   |  7 PagesThe term apartheid was one of the most politically charged words in the second half of the 20th century, and still remains notorious today. Apartheid translated from Afrikaans means separateness or apartness. However when the National Party came to power in South Africa in 1948, it took on a much more sinister meaning and today is associated with racial and ethnic discrimination. The roots of apartheid stem deep into South African history. It started way back during European settlement, andRead MoreApartheid in South Africa1118 Words   |  5 PagesApartheid In South Africa APARTHEID Apartheid is the political policy of racial segregation. In Afrikaans, it means apartness, and it was pioneered in 1948 by the South African National Party when it came to power. Not only did apartheid separate whites from non-whites, it also segregated the Blacks (Africans) from the Coloureds (Indians, Asians). All things such as jobs, schools, railway stations, beaches, park benches, public toilets and even parliament. Apartheid alsoRead MoreThe Apartheid Of South Africa1159 Words   |  5 PagesDuring the year of 1948, the lives of south Africans changed forever. The National Party, which was an all-white government, gained power and created hell for non-white citizens, their goal was to have white people continue to dominate the country and to keep each race separated from each other; even though at the time whites were only 20% of the population. The apartheid, which literally means â€Å"apartness† lasted until 1991, and during this time many acts were passed. One being that â€Å"non-white AfricansRead MoreThe Apartheid Of South Africa Essay1742 Words   |  7 PagesNelson Mandela and protesters during South Africa s journey away from apartheid. It’s a curious ponder, in fact, that America’s and South Africa’s ascents from racial discrimination were possibly involved with each other. However, while the world may be convinced the nation is out of racist dep ths, evidence displays the rise from discrimination in South Africa is undeniably incomplete. There is a dangerous and unresolved influence of apartheid in South Africa today. After World War 2 was won byRead MoreThe Apartheid Of South Africa1333 Words   |  6 Pageshistory of South Africa all we could see is racial discrimination. Africa was all in control of Whites till 1994. South Africa got free from racial discrimination when Nelson Mandela took a step became the first black prime minister of South Africa. Contemporary South Africa is now economically strong and it is completely a racial free state. The contemporary South Africa is now in race with every state in every field. Before 1994 South Africa was completely under control of Apartheid. WHO IS APARTHEID

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Job Hunt Based on the Education Stream Free Essays

Exploratory Essay Being in college is a great opportunity to study the major everyone has always dreamed of. I am sure that not everyone that is in college at the moment knows exactly what direction to go with their specific major. By doing some research on my major I plan to gain some knowledge of what type of job opportunities my accounting major can offer me. We will write a custom essay sample on Job Hunt Based on the Education Stream or any similar topic only for you Order Now At this moment I do not know exactly what different jobs I can pursue with my major. I am also sure that there are a several jobs that can deal with accounting that I will learn about. As I started my research on my major I came to one job title that every person with accounting experience start off with to make a way onto higher positions. This job title is called an accounting clerk. An accounting clerk usually deals with activities like preparing for basic management and ledger maintenance. One essential and basic duty they have to do is assume much responsibility to perform assigned accounting and related clerical support functions. This is where they maintain files, type a variety of reports or documents, print account payable checks and insert checks to mail daily, and prepare worksheets to the general ledger system. A second duty they maintain is resolving accounting or documentation problems by tracking and investigating these problems (Accounting Clerk 1). A third is establishing coordination with the company’s personal and effective communication. This duty deals with assisting and maintaining contact with any other departments to convey any transactions, keep the management informed about any problems or area activities, and involving themselves in any meetings (Accounting Clerk 1-2). A last duty they are responsible for is ensuring the place in which they work is maintained secure and complete any special projects assigned (Accounting Clerk 2). An accountant clerk has many responsibilities they have to take care of at all times. This Google PDF document informed me about the certain responsibilities an accountant clerk has to achieve to maintain this certain position. It showed me the great significance it can play in my life if I chose to go into this position and the things I would have to over go. For example, I can hold the responsibility of maintaining and over looking documents for a company or even finding any issues with any of the documents. It also informed me that becoming an accounting clerk can be a great first step to start off with, so that sooner or later I would be able to pursue bigger and greater things. Starting with this job title could better prepare me for any future positions I would like to get into. Being an accounting clerk sure is one good job title that I would keep in mind, but there are also a couple more that have caught my interest. A second job title that can be a possibility for me to look into that can as well deal with a great amount of responsibilities is bookkeeping. Bookkeepers are responsible for taking many records of the transactions for a company’s business. They must also be able to maintain the records within a certain computer program or given ledger. The type of records bookkeepers need to maintain can include those which calculate accounts payable and receivable, expenditures, receipts, and profit and loss (Bureau of Labor Statistics). Bookkeepers have a lot of tasks they have to do so having a wide range of skills will be the only way they would be able to handle this type of job. A bookkeeper may choose to work for a small business or a large company. Either job they choose to work for requires some sort of the same tasks, but if they liked to work for a large company they would have to have much more experience with the task bookkeepers encounter (Bureau of Labor Statistics). If they do not have the great amount of experience than working for a large business would not be a good fit for them and working for a small business would be a much more comfortable start for them. This bookkeeping job deals with a lot double tasking skills that can be complicated to master. The Bureau of Labor Statistics website has gained me a little knowledge about bookkeeping and what it consist of. From this website I took an understanding that a bookkeeper needs to feel comfortable working with a computer at all times because it is one main source they work with. They also have many responsibilities to take into account and in order to accomplish them they have to have the right amount of experience to be successful in this job. Knowing that they work a lot with computers was one main thing that I like about this job. To calculate, put in records and type out data has caught a little of my interest because having experience with computers is something I can perform well with. A last job title that I looked into that caught my attention was a tax specialist. A tax specialist is the person who fills out tax return forms for many clients. Their ultimate goal is to reduce their client’s tax debt by including any possible deductions. They have to conduct many interviews with each client in order to get important personal and financial information. Their duty does not only limit to reporting on tax returns, but they could also have the responsibility of informing their company of any expenditure that has any association with the business transactions (Solis). Tax specialist can also have the option to work year round or only during the season of taxes. To work year round they would have to be working with a business and to work during the season they can do it to earn themselves extra money. How to cite Job Hunt Based on the Education Stream, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

sanat sanat iindir Essays - Erine, Yaban, Nasl, Unun, Bayeux, Tpk

Sanat, sanat i?in midir, yoksa toplum i?in mi? 'Sanat, sanat i?in midir, yoksa toplum i?in mi?' Lise y?llar?m?zda, okullar aras?nda yap?lan m?nazaralar?n demirba? konular?ndan biri de buydu! ?ki taraf da savunduklar? teze uygun kan?tlar bulmaya u?rarlar; sonunda retmenlerden olu?an j?ri, taraflardan birini galip ilan ederdi... Bu ikilem, beni her zaman tedirgin etmi?tir. Sanat?n toplum i?in oldu?u sav?, bana birka? y?nden, 'Bedreddin ?zerine ?iirler'i, 'Do?u ?iirleri'ni ve 'Mustafa Subhi ?zerine ?iirler'i yazdm y?llarda bile, ikna edici bir tez gibi g?r?nmemi?tir. Bunun birka? nedeni var: ?lki, sanat?n t?pk? felsefe gibi, gayesinin kendi i?inde (ya da, kendine) olmas? gerekti?ini dn?yor olmamd?r. Daha ?nce de yazd?m: Felsefenin bir praksis olarak gayesinin kendinde oldu?u (eupraxia auto telos), ilk defa Aristoteles taraf?ndan ?ne s?r?lmt?r. Felsefenin gayesi, nas?l ki, felsefe yapman?n verdi?i entelekt?el haz idiyse, sanat?n gayesi de sanat yapman?n verdi?i haz olmal?d?r: Estetik haz! Do?all?kla bu durum, felsefeyi ve sanat? yapanlar i?in oldu?u kadar, onu al?mlayanlar i?in de ge?erli olmak gerekir. ?te yandan, sanat?n toplum i?in oldu?u sav?, antropolojik adan da sorunlu bir konudur. Nedeni ?u: Sanat?n estetik fonksiyonunun dnda bir gayesi olu?u, ancak sanatla zenaatin veya sanat?n b?y? ve din ile olan bir arada olu?una ili?kindir. Lascaux ve Altamira'daki ma?ara resimleri, insan?n avc?l?k ve toplay?c?l?kla ya?am?n? yeniden ?retti?i (ge?imini sa?lad) yaban toplumun ?r?nleridir. Ma?ara resimlerinin gayesi, avlama i?ini kolayla?t?racak b?y? objeleri olmalar?ndad?r;- daha fazlas? de?il! Bayeux hal?lar? da, orta?a? ?atolar?ndaki hava ak?mlar?n? kesmek gayesiyle ?retilmi?lerdir. Bug?n i?in bu gayeye y?nelik bir kullan?m fonksiyonu s?zkonusu olmad i?in, Bayeux hal?lar? sadece estetik fonksiyonu ile sanat objesi olarak m?zede sergilenmektedir. Sanat?n toplum i?in olmas? onun estetik (haz) fonksiyonunun ('auto telos'unun) geriye itilmesi, onun gayesi dnda kullan?lmas? anlam?nda, kullan?m fonksiyonunun ?ne kmas? demektir. Bir sanat objesi (mesela, bir ?iir, bir resim) toplum i?in ?retildi?i sav?yla ortaya k?yorsa bu, onun t?pk? ma?ara resimlerinde ve Bayeux hal?lar?nda oldu?u gibi, estetik fonksiyonunun geriye itildi?i ve kullan?m fonksiyonunun ?ne kar?ld anlam?na gelir. Buradan ?una var?yoruz: Naz?m Hikmet ve Necip Faz?l gibi b?y?k ?airlerin b?y?kl, onlar?n belirli bir ideolojik ba?lamda toplum i?in yaz?yor olmalar?nda, yani ?iirin kullan?m fonksiyonunu ?ne karmalar?nda de?il, ?iirlerinin kullan?m fonksiyonu g?z ard? edildi?inde estetik bir haz veriyor olmalar?nda aranmal?d?r. nk? ger?ekten baz? ?iirlerinin ideolojik g?ndermelerinin (mesela Naz?m'?n 'D?rt Mapushaneden' ?iirlerinde, ya da Necip Faz?l'?n 'Sakarya' ?iirinde) ?ne kmadn? s?ylemek m?mk?nd?r. Do?all?kla bu durum, Naz?m Hikmet'in ve Necip Faz?l'?n, ideolojik anlamda kullan?m fonksiyonunun g?z ard? edilmesi m?mk?n olmayan toplumcu ?iirleri i?in ge?erli olamaz... Dikkat edildiyse, Necip Faz?l i?in de 'toplumcu' nitelemesini kullan?yorum. 'Toplumcu' ?iirin, bana g?re elbet, dar anlamda 'sosyalist' bir ?iir olmas? gerekmiyor: Mesela Mehmet Akif de toplumcu ama M?sl?man bir ?airdir ve elbette sosyalist de?il! Belki de Adorno'nun s?yledi?i gibi, subjektif duygular? dilegetiren lirik ?iirler, kan?lmaz olarak bireyci ?iirler olmak zorunda de?ildir; lirik ?iirlerin de Adorno'nun deyi?iyle 'ideolojinin ?rtbas etti?ini aa kartma' gibi bir kullan?m fonksiyonu olabilir. Ama bu, 'aa karma'n?n, Heidegger'ci anlamda 'aletheia', yani, 'if?a etme' anlam?nda Hakikat'i imliyor olup olmad, ayr? bir yaz? konusudur.